Abnormalities in the kidneys, urethra, ureters, bladder, etc. may be present in horses. A blood test, a urinalysis, a cystoscopy (with the help of a camera, it is possible to visualize the inside of the bladder and the ureters), a renal ultrasound and a transrectal ultrasound in order to visualize the bladder and the kidneys are the examinations of choice.
Urinalysis is used to evaluate urine density, the presence of blood, inflammatory cells, proteins, pH in the urine. These parameters provide crucial information to target the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Also, microscopic and bacteriological analysis may be advised.